Now a days every market has a crowd at oil section, due to many variety of oils people are confused regarding which oil should be used. Here is answer to which oil and why. Oil is basically fat, so knowing about fat is very important to know which oil is good.
Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. There are four types of fats: saturated,, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fats. Saturatedrease the HDL( good cholesterol) and increae the LDL,VLDL ( bad cholesterol) where as monounsaturated fats decrease the LDL and leave HDL intact and the polyunsaturated fats help in reducing LDL,VLDL and also increasing HDL levels.
Dietary consumption of fatty acids has effects on human health. Studies have found that replacing saturated fats with cis unsaturated fats in the diet reduces risk of cardiovascular disease. For example, a 2015 systematic review of randomized control trials by the Cochrane Library concluded: “Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturated fats.”
So, THE OILS RICH IN POLYUNSATURATED AND MONOUNSATURATED FATS; AND HAVES LESS SATURATED FATS IS IDEAL TO CONSUME.
The above figure demonstrates type of oil and its dietary composition of type of fatty acid.
- Canola oil: It is a good source of monounsaturated fat and least in saturated fat among all other oils. Hence its a very good option to be used.
- Safflower oil and sunflower oil are good sources of linoleic acid which is omega 6 fatty acid.
- Olive oil is highest in monounsaturated fat hence it is good for health. But extra virgin variety of olive oil has low smoking point so it can be used in salads as dressing.Olive oil is also rich in antioxidants called polyphenols, beneficial plant compounds that some evidence suggests may improve heart health.
- Soybean oil is highest in ALA which is very beneficiary hence it is a good option for cooking.As a bonus, soybean oil contains some omega-3 fats, which are heart-healthy fats often found in salmon and sardines, but are less common in plant-based sources of food.
- Among cooking oils, peanut oil has the highest monounsaturated fat content — about half (49 percent). Peanut oil has a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fat (33 percent) to canola oil, another mostly monounsaturated fat.
- Its percentage of saturated fat (18 percent) is higher than that of other vegetable oils, but not to the point that it’s a concern for heart health, and it still has less saturated fat than coconut or palm oils.
- Sesame oil sesame oil is a good mix of polyunsaturated fat (46 percent) and monounsaturated fat (40 percent), Lichtenstein said. The remaining 14 percent is saturated fat. It’s not usually used as a cooking fat and is used more for its intense flavoring.
- Mustard oil has about 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (42% erucic acid and 12% oleic acid); it has about 21% polyunsaturated fats (6% the omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and 15% the omega-6 linoleic acid), and it has about 12% saturated fats.
- Coconut oil / butter / palm oil these are high in saturated fat and hence should not be consumed frequently.
Oil should be consumed in moderation of about 0.8 litres per person/ month is healthy.