Dysphagia

  • February 15, 2018

Dysphagia is a delay in or misdirection of a fluid or solid food bolus as it moves from the mouth to the stomach Swallowing can be devided into 4 stages

  • Oral/preparatory stage
  • Oral phase
  • Pharyngeal phase
  • Esophagealphase

Symptoms of Dysphagia: – Usually defined as any perceptible change in bodily function that the patient notices.

This change eventually leads the patient to seek medical help when it causes pain or discomfort or negatively impacts his/her lifestyle.

  • Patient description
  • Obstruction
  • Liquids vs solids
  • Gasrtoesopharyngeal reflex
  • Eating habits

Signs of dysphagia : Signs are objective measurement or observations of behaviours that people elicit during a physical examination.

  • Some signs are seen during observation of motion
  • Drooling
  • Loss of strength or coordination
  • Patient cognitive status
  • Feeding tubes
  • Tracheostomy tube
  • Eating refusals
  • Under nutrition
  • Inability to maintain upright feeding position
  • An endotracheal tube
  • Regurgitation of food

Causes of dysphagia:-

  • Swallowing disorders caused by neurologic lesions
  • Swallowing deficits in dementia
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Lower motoneuron functions & swallowing impairments
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Dysphagia caused by head/neck cancer
  • Surgery for oral cancer

Assessment of Dysphagia:-

The Evaluation includes the following steps :

  • Subjective complaints
  • Physical Examination
  • Screening Procedure
  • Bedside or Clinical Evaluation

Management of patients with oropharyngeal Swallowing disorders:-

  • Oral v/s Non Oral feeding
  • Compensatory treatment procedures
  • Postural techniques
  • Techniques to improve oral sensory awareness
  • Intra oral prosthetics
  • Direct v/s indirect therapy

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