What is Motor Neuron Disease(ALS)? Causes & Symptoms

Lou Gehrig's Disease

Motor neuron disease (MND) is a
progressive disorder of the upper and lower motor neurons of the brain. This
ends in muscle weakness, often with wasting of the muscles that are affected.
It is likewise called ALS(Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

ALS is inherited in 5 to ten percentage
of instances. Sometimes there’s no acknowledged motive, different instances
seem to occur randomly. This condition occurs in the ratio of 1.5:1 for males
and females accordingly.

There are different terms which are
used to describe the involvement at different levels, they are
Frontal dementia- percental gyrus
Pseudobulbar palsy- corticobulbar pathway
Progressive bulbar palsy- cranial nerve nuclei
Primary lateral sclerosis- corticospinal tract
Progressive muscular atrophy- anterior horn cell.

 

Possible causes of ALS consist of:

 

Gene mutation:

Various genetic mutations can lead to
inherited ALS, which seems nearly identical to the non-inherited form. The gene
for familiar ALS is localized to chromosome 21

 

Chemical imbalance:

People
with ALS typically have better than normal tiers of glutamate, a chemical
messenger in the brain, across the nerve cells in their spinal fluid. Too an
awful lot glutamate is understood to be poisonous to some nerve cells.

Disorganized
immune response: Sometimes someone’s immune device starts attacking some of his
or her frame’s own regular cells, which may also lead to the death of nerve
cells.

 

·       Early signs and signs and symptoms of
ALS consist of:


·       Weakness and wasting of the muscles
asymmetrically


·       Difficulty taking walks, tripping or
trouble doing your regular day by day sports


·       Weakness in your leg, feet or
anklesHand weakness or clumsiness


·       Slurring of speech or trouble
swallowing


·       Muscle cramps and twitching on your fingers,
shoulders, and tongue

·       Difficulty conserving your head up or
maintaining a terrific posture


·       There will be an apparent weakness of
the muscles of mastication and expression, therefore, the patient faces
difficulty in chewing and has an expressionless face.


·       Spasticity is rare and muscle cramps
are common.

 

Diagnosis:

Autosomal
recessive disorder (hexosaminidase deficiency) may mimic ALS
EMG: this test reveals denervation along with fibrillation.
Nerve conduction studies
MRI scans or myelography.

 

Treatment:

Physical
therapy helps to prevent pain developed from stiffer joints and also helps to
prevent loss of motion. This therapy also helps patients with ALS to adapt
themselves with their physical disabilities.

 

Exercises
to increase Range of motion (ROM)

Help
flow the joints through their full variety of motion. These ought to be
accomplished actively, if possible, or passively if muscle weak spot limits
movement. These ought to be achieved each day to prevent ache and stiffness.

 

Stretches

Stretches
should be done regularly which helps to prevent stiffness and pain which in
turn decreases the intensity of muscle cramps.

 

Exercises
To Increase Strength:

These
types of exercises are not recommended. Muscles that are already affected by
ALS will not get strengthened when exercised by using weights and may also lead
to more weakness of the affected muscles.

 

Aerobic
exercises:

Cardiovascular
fitness can be increased by increasing endurance and muscle efficiency


Check
out these links for relevant information: Neurological physiotherapypaediatric neuroSpeech
therapy
,
 occupational
therapy


For more details contact us on 📞9618906780

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